Citing Hearings (Online)
Congressional hearings contain the full transcripts of the proceedings, usually arranged chronologically in the order of appearance of witnesses. Hearings include the record of oral and written statements, committee questions, and discussion. Frequently, hearings also contain texts of related reports, statistical analyses, correspondence, exhibits, and articles presented to the committee by witnesses or inserted into the record by committee members and staff. Hearings are available in many libraries in either paper format or in microfiche and can be identified by using ProQuest® Congressional.
For each citation, include:
- "U.S.", the Chamber (House or Senate), and the committee or subcommittee name holding the hearing. If the committee is a "joint committee," there will be no Chamber entry.
- The title of the publication; shortened with an ellipsis (...) if the title is too long
- If there is a date as part of the title, include it
- Extremely lengthy hearings may be published in multiple volumes or parts, include all part or volume numbers in the citation
- Database name (Text from: Congressional Hearings)
- Date accessed by the user (Accessed: date)
U.S. House. Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce. Hazardous Waste Disposal, Part 1. (HRG-1979-FCH-0059; Date: Mar.-May 1979). Text in: ProQuest® Congressional Hearings Digital Collection; Accessed: March 10, 2007.
It is not uncommon for additional materials to be appended to a congressional hearing. If it is necessary to cite directly to an appendix, use the phrase "Included in" to alert your reader that the item being cited is part of a larger document. For example:
"History and Status of Hazardous Waste Management in New Jersey." Included in: U.S. House. Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce. Testimony Hazardous Waste Disposal, Part 1. (HRG-1979-FCH-0059; Date: Mar.-May 1979). Text in: ProQuest® Congressional Hearings Digital Collection; Accessed: March 10, 2007.